Synchrotrons are capable of generating beams over a wide spectral range and therefore optical components should exhibit high transparency to accommodate such wavelengths. Diamond is unique among all known materials due to its wide spectral transparency but is not a cost-effective solution in its natural form. Synthetic diamond, however, produced in the laboratory by chemical vapour deposition (CVD) techniques at a fraction of the cost, has very similar properties to natural diamond. This includes extreme hardness, high thermal conductivity and the necessary transparency for optical wavelengths that range from 220 nanometres to beyond 100 microns, making CVD diamond an ideal choice for synchrotron applications.
CVD Diamond Viewports
Torr Scientific offers an unrivalled range of both standard and non-standard CVD diamond viewports for synchrotron applications. UHV Viewports are offered as standard in CF flanges using high grade 304L or 316LN stainless steel, but can also be supplied in ISO, KF or custom designed flanges on request. The viewports comprise a diamond window which is synthetically produced by a chemical vapour deposition (CVD) process, and are manufactured in contamination-free, cleanroom conditions. The rugged construction of the CVD diamond viewports allows repeated bake-out with UHV performance and the transmission properties extend from visible, through FIR, to beyond 100 microns. The window is polished to a surface roughness of 30nm Ra, has high thermal conductivity and good biocompatibility. Various anti-reflective coatings to match customer reflectance requirements can also be catered for. Non-standard CVD diamond viewports are available on request, so contact TSL direct or your local representative with your requirements.
Water Cooled X-Ray UHV Windows
High Thermal Conductivity CVD diamond windows used in synchrotron applications can be subjected to high thermal loads due to the absorption of low-energy X-rays. Since CVD diamond possesses excellent thermal conductivity, the absorbed energy is quickly dissipated to the edge of the diamond window where it can be removed by a simple and efficient cooling technique. Water-cooled CVD diamond windows are therefore ideal in applications which involve higher frequencies or higher power. Torr Scientific manufactures a standard range of water-cooled CVD diamond windows, supplied in either 304L or high-grade 316LN CF flanges. Bespoke windows are also available on request.
MCP detectors are used in a variety of applications including UV, VUV and EUV spectroscopy, atomic and molecular physics, TOF mass–spectrometry of clusters and biomolecules, surface studies and space research. These vacuum imaging detectors can be supplied as a totally assembled unit that can be easily mounted on any support substrate or directly on a vacuum flange. They can also be supplied pre-mounted on standard CF or ISO vacuum flanges. As the MCP is operated with a high voltage of approximately 1kV per stage, a relatively high degree of vacuum is required. Standard configurations include either a CF100 or ISO100 flange, a glass window and a P22G yellow/green phosphor screen. Alternative designs incorporating different MCPs, flanges and screens can be quoted on request. Versions with fibre optic outputs for coupling to CCD or CMOS cameras, can also be manufactured.
MCP Manipulators for Beam Visualisation & Secondary Electron Detection
MCP Manipulators are ideal instruments for beam visualisation and secondary electron detection at synchrotron facilities. The MCP detector can be customised according to the application in question, and are mounted on to a smooth and precise linear shift mechanism (typically offering up to 100 mm linear travel, with longer travels available on request) so it can be moved in and out of the detection zone. Electrical feedthroughs are positioned at the end of the MCP Manipulator, fitted with SHV connectors as standard, with in-vacuum UHV compatible Kapton wire being used throughout for electrical insulation. An optional 3U rack-mounted, high voltage power supply, complete with digital readout is also available.