+44 (0)1424 225228 sales@torrscientific.co.uk

Custom glass fabrications

Custom Domed Tubulation

Several years ago, Torr Scientific extended its vacuum window processing capabilities to include production of glass‑to‑metal seals. We have our own glass shop, which allows further development of the wide range of ultra‑high vacuum optical components. The glass shop is equipped with both induction heaters and glass‑blowing lathes that enable the company to develop its range of glass vacuum windows, feedthroughs, and OEM requirements for encapsulation of X‐ray and photonic components.

The picture shows a Kodial (8250 glass) domed tubulation on a CF63 flange. According to customer requirements, at the top of the Kodial domed tubulation, we have attached a flex tube, which is welded on a CF16 flange.

Our glass shop can manufacture multiple different glass‑to‑metal seal types. To name a few: tubulated Kodial viewports, Kodial tubulations, Kodial domed tubulations, Pyrex tubulations.

If you have an enquiry for OEM and non‑standard glass‑to‑metal seals, you can contact us on sales@torrscientific.co.uk.


What is glass?

Glass has an interesting molecular structure: it’s a solid, but with a molecular arrangement more akin to a liquid. In most solids, highly organized molecules are rigidly aligned and closely bound. In liquids, the molecules have weaker connections and are positioned more randomly. Known as an amorphous (noncrystalline) solid, glass, while it’s rigid like a solid, has a randomized molecular structure like a liquid. This characteristic (also present in plastics and gels) is why glass is transparent — light waves are better at penetrating through this type of arrangement than through other close‑quartered solid molecular arrangements.

Glass‑blowing is a glass forming technique that involves inflating heat‑softened glass with the aid of a blowpipe (or blow tube). Glass‑blowing was invented by Syrian craftsmen from Sidon and Babylon between 27 BC and 14 AD. The ancient Romans were the first to establish large glass workshops, with glass being formed for both utilitarian and decorative purposes.

Glass‑blowing exploits the liquid structure of glass where the atoms are held together by strong chemical bonds in a disordered and random network, so that heat‑softened glass is viscous enough to be blown and gradually hardens as it cools down.